New LED bulb disassembly analysis

Nowadays, LED lighting technology is setting off a whirlwind of industrial revolution. LED lighting bulb manufacturers are working to quickly improve performance and reduce the price of LED bulbs. Last year, ordinary family-style LED bulbs, such as A19LED bulbs, were priced between $20 and $60, and were already very cost-effective. This year, high-end LED bulbs, such as LG's LED bulbs, are priced as low as $10, breaking through just 10 days.

The performance of LED bulbs is similar to that of fluorescent lamps (CFLs), 50-60 lumens/watt. However, LEDs are still technically superior to CFLs. The 7.5WLG bulb emits 485lumens, which is equivalent to 65lm/W. Under the same 485lumens premise, the old 40W bulb can only emit 12lm/W, which is about five times less than the former.

About uniform lighting problems

When we place a desk lamp with an LED bulb, we can control the brightness of the lamp to illuminate upwards. This is because the inside of the LED emitter is placed horizontally. The Philips bulb uses three vertically adjustable LED faces to slow down the control of illumination brightness. Despite this, the uniform illumination of reading lamps or work lights makes it impossible to concentrate heat on a certain lighting object.

Chip-level disassembly: a comprehensive analysis of the art of new LED bulb design

As shown in the figure, the LG bulb can control most of the light to be projected upwards because the LED substrate is placed horizontally inside the bulb.

The design of the lamp is also evolved from the principle of the Edison light bulb. The emission of light is scattered in all directions. With the evolution of light bulbs for more than a century, the modern lamp design and its pioneer kerosene lamp are very different.

The original bulbs did not have mandatory requirements in terms of efficiency and popularity, but their advantages led to their prevalence and led to the decline of oil lamps. One day, the electric light will develop into a product that adapts to the uniqueness of the LED light source. This day is not far from us. When LED light sources can improve their service life in the next decade, it is undoubtedly a replacement for electric lights, and the lamps will have a variety of specifications and shapes. At the same time, forcing LEDs to take Edison's style version is tantamount to punching a square nail into a circular hole.

However, StrategiesUnlimited predicts that the global market share of the traditional light source being replaced will rise to $3.7 billion by 2016, and this figure is still 2.7 billion in 2011. In fact, LED tubes provide very comfortable brightness, which is more enjoyable than compact fluorescent bulbs, and people will be willing to use them. These bulbs are more durable than CFLs, do not contain a watermark, and light up as soon as they are turned on. Those nasty CFLs take a while to reach their maximum brightness.

LED tubes are a complex electronic device. The LED itself is a semiconductor diode that requires only a DC voltage of approximately 3V. Ordinary households are powered by 110V or 220V AC depending on the geographical location. LG's lamp can't adjust the brightness. Although new models of dimmers are required, the relatively high price of the product is adjustable. Like the CFLs, the LED tube has a small circuit board that fits inside the neck of the tube.

As you can see from the figure above, the board has a built-in transformer, several capacitors and a power transistor. The LED controller is mounted vertically on a daughter card. It is a half-bridge resonant controller of the HS01G manufactured by ON Semiconductor. Taking into account the high-brightness output of the bulb, you will find that the LED chip is actually very small. LG bulbs use 32 LED chips, each measuring 0.5mm x 0.5mm. The size of a rice grain is about 5mmx2mm. These LED chips are packaged in a 4x4 fluorescent light in a circular shape, and the emitted blue light passes through. The gallium nitride core component is converted to white light. Usually, phosphors are used in the medium of fluorescent lamps. Within the LED emitter, the silicone condenses small particles of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), yttrium, yttrium and calcium silicate. Different materials are used to get different color temperatures. Explore four LEDs

Four LEDs, each measuring about 0.5mmx0.5mmx0.1mm, packaged under the LED dome to design the emitter to control the heat dissipation problem

Since the LEDs are prone to overheating, the design of the back of the emitter is specifically designed to solve the problem of LED heat dissipation.

As shown in the figure above, a close-up of the core of the LED chip taken with an electron microscope. The electrode and cathode are connected in an embedded process, and the other part is connected to the anode. Although the core components of each LED chip are small, most of them are used to support materials. The oblique diagonal division divides the double substrate. On the sky blue substrate, a very thin layer of gallium nitride (GaN) can be seen, which is only about 7 μm thin. The sapphire substrate is mainly implanted with a GaN growth medium. The pattern of substrate ridges reduces the dislocation density of GaN, acting as a mechanical support and a heat sink on the substrate substrate. It usually does not work at 6 μm at the bottom of GaN. The crystal will gradually interfere with penetration to 1 μm, at which point the light emitter region is determined. The light-emitting region is as small as a certain order of magnitude, reaching the nanometer (nm) range, and finally implanted at about 100 nm below the upper surface.

The diagonal cross-sectional pattern of the core portion of the LED chip can be measured to be about 0.1 mm. The surface of the GaN layer is a thin barrier layer. The cathode tracking was used to find that the electrode was located very close to the center.

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